According to the DOCENAVE and Vale do Rio Doce company websites, DOCENAVE, or Navegação Vale do Rio Doce, S.A., was formed in 1962 and is the shipping arm of the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), a huge, formerly state-owned company (privatized in 1998) with mining, industrial, forest product, transport and port operations interests in Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Pará, and Maranhão states. CVRD itself was created in 1942 to implement the Brazilian government's takeover, under a U.S.-UK- Brazilian agreement, of American and British iron mining and railroad interests in Minas Gerais as part of the Allied war effort. DOCENAVE claims to be one of the 10 largest transoceanic shipping companies in the world. Most of its operations are conducted through a Liberian- flagged subsidiary, SeaMar. Including both foreign and domestic services, DOCENAVE and its subsidiaries operate about 24 ocean-going vessels (plus eight tugs), 10 of them under the Brazilian flag. Routes connect Brazil to the U.S. east and west coasts, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and the Far East, carrying primarily ferrous and non-ferrous ores, oil, and grain.